Sunday, 13 September 2015


Most of the  Indian conflict vulnerable borders are surrounded by the mountains.There is a very high probability of  conflict in those high altitude areas.This anticipation was enforced by Pakistani infiltration during Kargil war in which many soldiers martyred because of non-availability of a suitable combat helicopter for high altitude.Indian air force heavy attack helicopters were not able to fight in those high altitude areas neither attack aircraft.These things lead to a need for a combat platform which can fight in extreme high altitude, that is why the light combat helicopter development program born.HAL started a development program to use the technology available that in its advanced light helicopter and use that platform for further evolve into a light combat helicopter that can really be effective at high altitude.
             Hal RWR&DC started developing light combat helicopter in 2006 and IOC is anticipated in 2016.LCH is being developed as a narrow fuselage tandem seat configuration.LCH consist of a fully digital glass cockpit in which pilot occupies the front seat and rear seat is for weapon system operator.pilot itself operate the gun turret with the help of helmet mounted sight.LCH avionics contains multifunction lcd displays, radar warning receivers, laser warning receiver and maws system.MAWS system is being provided  by SAAB of South africa. It also has countermeasure (FLIR) and electro-optical sight and targeting for fire control and are synched with helmet mounted display.with the help of helmet mounted display pilot can engage any target by just merely looking on it.LCH is equipped with data link for net-centric warfare which increases its combat effectiveness in multi-folds by sending and getting information with air platform and ground-based platforms.LCH is powered by two Shakti turboshaft engine which produces 1067 kW power individually.Shakti engine is designed and produced by Turbomeca and HAL jointly, it is also known as Ardiden 1h.Shakti engine allows LCH to operate at an altitude of 6500m with full combat load.Shakti engine also features full authority digital engine control which increases the reliability of the engine.
        LCH will be heavily armed with the various type of  weapons those will include anti-tank missile, gun mount and air to air missile etc.LCH has four wing station for weapons. It has been confirmed that DRDO developed HELINA anti-tank missile will be used for its primary anti-tank weapon.HELINA will be integrated with a dual packed launcher.HELINA is the  helicopter launch version of the Nag missile.It features a high resolution imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and effectively work in the high-temperature zones also.It has two modes of firing LOBL(lock on before launch) and LOAL( lock on after launch).IT has a range of 8 km which will provide a good standoff distance from the MANPADS which are the worst nightmare for any low flying aircraft.LCH will be armed with mistral air to air heat seeking missile and has a range of 6 km and will be primary air to air weapon for LCH.
          there are following roles can be performed by LCH
  • Air Defense role against UAVs and slow moving aircrafts
  • Destruction of Enemy Air Defence (DEAD) Operations
  • Escort to Special Heliborne Operations (SHBO)
  • Offensive employment in urban warfare, CSFO (Counter Surface Force Operations) and CI (Counter Insurgency) operation.
  • Support of Combat SAR Operations
  • Antitank role
  • Scout duties
          so far HAL has produced  three prototypes of LCH
TD1 is the first prototype of LCH and is not weaponised.TD1 made its maiden flight in 2010.It has been extensively used for flight testing.Success  of the TD1 lead to the evolution of TD2.

TD2 is the second prototype featuring a substantial weight reduction made  its first flight in 2011 and previously it was shown in Aero India 2011 with its weapon station loaded with rocket pod and four helina anti-tank missile in a digital camouflage.                                                                                                                           

3.TD3                                                                                                                                                               td3 made its first flight in 2014  and has a better-protected cockpit against ground fire and also have some improvement which were desired by Indian air force and Indian army.IT has recently completed high-altitude hot weather tail and set a record for the combat helicopter to land on high altitude forward base.A total of 65 and 114 LCH is on order for Indian air force and army.IT is revealed by Hal that LCH will be series produced from 2017.                                                       

Thursday, 6 August 2015


India had always a need for long-range cruise missiles for attacking strategic and tactical targets.But India has no options rather than to develop its completely indigenous cruise missile because of missile technology control regime treaty signed by Russia also known as MTCR.MTCR blocked India from getting technologies for its long-range version of  Brahmos missile from Russia.The result of these events was the development of Indian long-range subsonic cruise missile named as Nirbahay (meaning fearless).Nirbhay is being developed as all weather multiple platforms launched cruise missile.It will see service in the Indian army, air force and navy in near future.there is a plan for the development of land attack version  launched from aircraft also known as  (ALCM), seaborne and surface launched.DRDO which is responsible for developing this missile is also planning to develop a long-range anti-ship version of the missile with the ability to be launched from aircraft, coastal launchers and ship.
                                 Nirbhay will weight around a ton with its solid stage will be high subsonic all the path, unlike Brahmos which is supersonic all the way.Nirbhay is powered by a small turbofan engine and for initial take off it uses solid stage will have better range compared to that of the Brahmos thanks to its turbofan engines, which consumes very less fuel compared to ramjet  engines.turbofan consumes a far less fuel compared to rocket engine which is conventionally used on many of the cruise missile around the world.Mid course guidance of the missile will be provided by indigenous Ring Laser Gyro Scope (RINS), which is very accurate and can work as a stand-alone guidance systems or in conjugation with satellite navigation system in hybrid configuration.The inertial navigation system of Nirbhay operates in hybrid mode for better accuracy.Nirbhay will be provided with terrain hugging navigation system which uses TERCOM.TERCOM is in development and will be tested soon by drdo, TERCOM stands for terrain countermeasures.In future, it may be equipped with a terminal active radar seeker for better accuracy.The development of the active radar seeker for the cruise missile are in development once developed, it will pave the for development of the anti-ship version of Nirbhay.Nirbhay can be armed with both conventional and the nuclear warhead.
                        Nirbhay has been tested two times till now by drdo.The first test of the missile was held in 2013 which was a partial success. According to officials of the DRDO , there was a minor fault in the inertial navigation system which causes the missile to deviate  from the path.After deviation from the path, drdo triggered the self-destruction mechanism onboard the missile.Apart from failure, the clean separation from the ejector, separation of solid stage booster and deployment of the wing was demonstrated in the first launch.The second test of the missile was taken place in October 2015 which was a copybook success according to the drdo.Missile completes its all designated parameter all the flight path and strikes the target with a very high accuracy.Drdo has claimed than Nirbhay will have a submeter accuracy and will have a range excess of 1200km.

                                                       second test of Nirbhay


                                                  video of the second launch of the Nirbhay

Tuesday, 28 July 2015


BrahMos :====>

                     BrahMos is a joint venture between Indian defence giant DRDO and NPOM of Russia.BrahMos missile is developed by this joint venture.In this joint venture  India and Russia have
50.5 and 49.5%  respectively.It is an excellent example of Russian and Indian collaboration in defence and extraordinary success of BrahMos is a reflection of Indian and Russian friendship.Russia is a most important friend of India after the soviet and its collapse.BrahMos has an official  range of only 290km because of mtcr treaty of Russia.
                           BrahMos is world's only supersonic cruise missile in the service with the armed forces.It is based on the deadly P800 onix cruise missile with the considerable upgrade.Solid stage booster and liquid ramjet engine  powers the missile for a sustained supersonic flight throughout the whole path.solid state booster provides BrahMos initial acceleration for lift off at fly the missile to enough altitude and velocity so that its ramjet engine gets start.After solid stage burnout, it gets detached from the BrahMos and afterwards BrahMos is powered by its powerful air breathing ramjet engine.Ramjet engines uses ram of air for its combustion and thus does not require internal oxidizer and also it is  more efficient than conventional rocket engine thus provide a greater range and reliability.BrahMos has a 300 kg of a high explosive warhead for the antiship variant.BrahMos has many variants with active service in the Indian navy and Indian army.Indian army has block 1, block 2 and block 3 with supersonic dive capability is in service.


   An anti-ship version of BrahMos missile is already in service with the Indian navy. there is two type of launcher of Brahmos missile on Indian navy ships, enclined launcher on ins Rajput class ships and vertical launching system on the rest of the warships.Installation of the brahmosh missile on the Indian navy warships makes them most fearsome antiship weapon system of the intire world.there is no missile with the capability to match speed, range and accuracy and reliability.None of the existing warships anti-missile defence systems can counter the BrahMos missile.Brahmos 3mach speed and sea skimming give the very little amount of time to counter it and CIWS are almost obsolete against it.Countering of Brahmos becomes almost impossible thanks to its supersonic manoeuvres around its target.There is some hope with its countering by using AWEC aircraft and detect it early and try to intercept using long-range anti-missile weapons like SM2. 
                       BrahMos' anti-ship variant has a range of 290km in the high low profile of flight and around 125 km in the full sea-skimming flight profile.BrahMos' anti-ship variant only differ from its ground attack in terms of the terminal seeker.This version uses active radar homing to identify and destroy the target in terminal phase.mid course correction is provided by GPS, GLONASS.Recently RCI imirat  a lab of DRDO has developed G3OM system which introduces a new guiding system by utilising GPS, GLONAS and GAGAN data.this system is designed to be  completely produced as a chip also called as a system on a chip.                 
                         list of Indian navy vessels armed with Brahmos:
 1.ins Rajput  -- 4 missiles
 2.ins Ranvir   -- 8 cell UVLS
 3.talwar class frigates -- 8 cell UVLS
 4.Kolkata class destroyers -- 2*8 cell UVLS

Monday, 27 July 2015

FUTURE of indian navy part 5: Kalvari class(scorpion) SSK

Kalvari class submarine commonly known as scorpion or project 75 (p75) submarine is a diesel-electric attack (SSK) stealth submarine of the Indian navy, which is under construction at Mazagon dock limited.It was a part of Indian navy 30 years of the expansion plan.the tender for same was floated in 2005 and scorpion was chosen as the winner of that tender.A total of 6 scorpion subs are being constructed at Mazagon dock limited at a cost of 3 bn $ out of which first submarine ins kalvari was launched on April 6, 2015, and which will be commissioned at the end of 2016, rest of the kalwari class submarines will be commissioned on the yearly basis .Scorpion subs have modular state of the art design which will dramatically improve the capability of the Mazagon dock limited in terms of submarine construction. Scorpion is designed by DCNS of France and Navantia of Spain.It is designed to achieve a high degree of stealth with  offensive anti-sub and anti-surface weapon carrying capability.It weighs around 1600 tons submerged and can carry heavy weight torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.Scorpion has a version with MESMA AIP (air independent propulsion) which increases its underwater diving time by almost twice.
                   Indian navy's version of scorpion named as Kalvari does not have AIP, but it has a larger length than Chilean version.Brazil has also ordered scorpion with AIP which will have little more displacement than its Indian counterpart.Let's stick with the Kalvari,I t has also special features.kalwari class subs will have six 533mm torpedo launcher which can also fire Exotec anti-ship missiles.kalwari will have Black shark heavyweight torpedo which has a very large radius of action,a better counter-counter measure system which allow the Black shark to engage Target without getting confused by decoys at large ranges.SM-39 Exocet anti-shipping missile has a range of 50kms against surface combatants.SM-39 is well battle proven, very reliable anti-ship missile from MBDA which will give a edge to Indian scorpion.DRDO of India has developed an indigenous air independent propulsion system based on methanol which will produce oxygen from methanol.This AIP system will be installed on the last two of the scorpion submarine which will improve the submerging time of the Kalwari sub by many folds.This system will also be installed on the rest of the Kalwari class subs latter may be in the mid-life upgrade.


        Combat system :SUBTICS
        SONAR: Long range passive cylindrical array and an active sonar
        Propulsion : two diesel engine providing 1250kw
        SM-39 Exocet anti-shipping missile
        Black shark long range wire guided torpedo

Wednesday, 22 July 2015


India has recently launched the lead ship of its newest destroyer naming  ins Visakhapatnam.Visakhapatnam class destroyer will be the future aegis like destroyer of Indian navy.Visakhapatnam class under the project name p15b in earlier it was rumoured to be named as Bengaluru class but after the launch of the first ship of this class the official name of p15b is identified as Visakhapatnam.There is an order of 4 Visakhapatnam class destroyer was placed to the Mazagon dock limited out of which one ship has been already launched in April 2015. Project 15b will feature an improved mast for its main radar.Vishakhapatnam class will have redesigned superstructure and will have a significant change in a mast.It will have better roll stability and can manoeuvre at high sea and high speed.The displacement of Visakhapatnam class destroyer will be around 7200 tons, almost equal to the Kolkata class ships.The hull of  Visakhapatnam class will be same as that of Kolkata class.It can be observed that there is no major redesigning has been done which reduces the cost per destroyer and also the timeline of delivery has been shrunk.
                                   Visakhapatnam class and Kolkata class destroyer both do not use its full space available for weapons, therefore, there is huge opportunity for upgrades in future.Kolkata class has 32 cell for barak8 surface to air missile and 16 cell universal vertical launcher for anti-ship and land attack cruise missile till now it is not specified that the Visakhapatnam class will have same or more weapons as that of the Kolkata class.It may be possible that may have 32 more vertical launchers at the aft of the ship.The Chinese counterpart of the Kolkata class, Type 52D carries 64 universal vertical launchers but has the less space available for the weapon . A question arises when we compare both warships that why Indian warships are lightly armed, answer is Indian ships are definitely going to get a heavy upgrade in their weaponry and may have long-range surface to air missiles developed by DRDO.Kolkata and Visakhapatnam both carries two ASW or multi-role helicopters thus giving an edge in anti-submarine warfare over type52 destroyer of china.It will have a longer range naval gun than Kolkata class, newer will have a 127mm gun whereas Kolkata class has 76mm SRGM.
                                      schematic of p15b

Length :163m
Draught:6.5 m
Speed:30 knots
Displacement:7200 tons

            32 to 64 Barak8 missile
            16 cell for Brahmos or Nirbhay
            2*ASW helicopters
            127mm gun
             4*AK630 CIWS guns
             2* RBU 6000 rocket launcher
             ELTA M 2248 multifunction S-band radar
             ELBIT decoys
              Thales LW 08 volume search radar
             HUMSA-NG panoramic sonar
             ALTAS towed array sonar from NPOL      
EVENT: 30/9/2015 INS KOCHI commissioned in Mumbai by Manohar Parriakr .

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Future Of Indian Navy : 2.Kamorta Class Corvette

INS Kamorta is first indigenously developed anti-submarine warfare corvette by India under the project name p 28. ins kamorta is designed by the Indian navy and GSRE (garden reach shipbuilders and engineering ) has done the detailed design. Kamorta class ships will be vital for Indian navy thanks for increasing Chinese navy's increasing submarine force and mass manufacturing of newer diesel-electric and nuclear-powered subs ( SSN ) by China.It is very clear that  Indian navy is giving priority to ASW ships and submarine, therefore, there is a plan for future variant as well which may get advanced stealth features and weapon systems and eight of those are anticipated.
                       Kamorta class ships are a great stride in the indigenous development of naval ships.She has a composite superstructure providing higher strength to weight ratio and stealth characteristics.Its hull is made of indigenously developed steel.This steel was developed by dodo's material research laboratory and being produced by SAIL Bhilai plant.It was also used in the production of the first carrier made in India INS Vikrant.Kamotra incorporates more than 90 % of is its components made in India.
                      Kamorta class operate drdo developed radar name Revati. It is the naval version of the radar developed for early warning in Akash air defence system naming 3D central acuition radar (CAR).it has a range more than 200 km for aircraft size targets and have many naval mode for better performance in high seas. Its main defence system Kavach was also developed by drdo and provide all around protection by the means of decoys and countermeasures.

Design : 

Kamorta class ships are designated as corvette but she has a displacement same as the most of the frigates around the world.ins Kamorta has X-shaped hull improving underwater stealth capabilities and a stealthy superstructure made of composites this is why it is Indian navy most stealthy warship.Kamorta has CODAD (combined diesel and diesel) propulsion systems. Diesel engines are provided by France company Pielstick. Her diesel engines are raft mounted and designing of the gearbox is helped by DCNS which is also a shipbuilding company of France. Her gearbox is produced by ELCON. She has 16 cell vls system for Barak 1 and srgm oto bareda 76 mm gun mounted on the front and two rocket launchers are also placed but there is no anti-ship missile even if there is a lot of space available for  the same.she is equipped with HUMSA NG next generation panoramic sonar and will be equipped with ALTAS towed array sonar.ALTAS is currently in development phase.

Armaments :

                         2 RBU 6000 rocket launcher
                         Kavach decoy system
                         HUMSA NG  sonar
                         ALTAS towed array sonar
                         16 cell vertical launcher for Barak 1
                          2 AK 630 CIWS
                         OTO Breda 76 mm SRGM
                         2 anti sub heavyweight torpedo launcher
                         2 helicopters for anti-submarine warfare

Saturday, 18 July 2015

P17A sucesser of shivalik class multirole frigates of Indian navy

P17A class frigates will be the succeeder of the Shivalik class (P17) frigate of Indian navy.P17a will have improved design in terms of stealth and weapon system.they will have better radar and offensive weapon like Brahmos in vertical launching system and most probably p17a will be equipped with Nirbhay land attack cruise missile.If anti-ship version will be developed of the Nirbhay then these ships may get installed with the Nirbhay.As the first ship will come after 2022 there may be possibility of getting hypersonic version or mini version of Brahmos.they will be equipped with Barak 8 missile which will soon go to the trail in this monsoon on the INS Kolkata.Barak8 has the very  good anti-missile capability and also very effective against the airborne already has been installed onboard the ins Kolkata.MFSTAR radar will reduce the number of radars required for  the P17A as compared to Shivalik class.MFSTAR operates in S-band and can track aircraft from a distance more than 250 km and guide many missiles simultaneously.It can also track sea-skimming missiles from a distance of 25 km. P17a will have very high automation and thus reducing the number of sailors required only 150 as there were 250 in the case of the Shivalik class.As P17a is upgraded Shivalik class ships many of the features will be the same like 6000 tonnes of displacement,x shaped hull and hanger but will be rail-less.
           P17a is designed for modular construction and will be made by the modular construction method.modular construction will allow shipyards to build the frigates  faster.GSRE and Mazagon dock has been chooses by the navy for construction.GSRE will build three and rest of four will be constructed by Mazagon dock.these shipyards have been given a time period of  24 months to equipped with the modular construction facility.Construction will start in 2017 and all the ships will be delivered by 2025.This project is costing up to 10 billion $.After this project,  India will have two shipyards with the capability to build world class frigates.

                                                     Schematics of P17A.

Monday, 13 July 2015

The Future Of Indian Navy


          INS Vikrant is first ever carrier designed  and built by any Asian country.She is currently being built by the Cochin Shipyard limited and is in the third phase of construction in which she will get all those wiring, radars installation and propulsion system.It will carry a mix of Mig 29K and naval LCA Tejas MK2. Mig 29k is already in service with Indian Navy and is operational on board the INS Vikramaditya.Navy had already ordered 48 Mig 29k.On the other hand, Tejas is in development phase whose mk1 naval version is already made the maiden flight from the INS Hansa from an SBTF facility.Naval Tejas MK2 will only see the operational deployment on the INS Vikrant because mk1 has lesser combat radius than required therefore it will only be used for testing purpose only.Naval Tejas MK2 will have more range and advanced avionics than the Mig itself.INS Vikrant will carry a mix of kamov 28 and sea king for early warning and anti-submarine operations respectively.
                           INS Vikrant is STOBAR (short take-off but arrested landing) carrier which design is highly influenced by the Russian carriers ,Russians also operates SATOBAR like admiral Kuznetsov.she will be powered by four  GE LM 25000 marine gas turbine engines and providing a higher cruise speed.vikrant will have a range of about 15000 km.It is slated to carry ak 630 as close in weapon system (ciws) and a mix of possibility is that Vikrant will carry Barak 8 or Barak 1 missiles in VLS system.Her carrier battle group will consist of Kolkata class destroyer and ins kamotra class corvettes.she will be escorted by kalvari class diesel-electric subs which is also known as scorpion class designed and developed by dcns of France.Kolkata class will provide anti-air capability and kamotra as anti-sub warfare.INS Vikrant is slated to be in service with Indian navy by 2018.

Schematics Diagram:

full schematics of ins Vikrant

top view of ins Vikrant

specifications :

             length   262 m
             drought 8.4 m
             beam    60 m
             speed  28 knots
             aviation facility 10000 m2
Armament :
                    32 cell Barak 8
                    AK 630 CIWS
Aircraft:      Mig 29K
                     NLCA Tejas MK2
                     Kamov ka 28
                     Seaking anti sub helicopter


Friday, 22 May 2015


                           India has a very large coastline compared to its rival nations.India is surrounded by  Indian ocean and pacific ocean.Most of the world trade is through sea out of  more than 70% is through Indian ocean, thus making Indian ocean very important compared to other sea routes.To secure Indian interest in Indian ocean region, (IOR) Indian navy must be upgraded to a true blue water navy.

            Existing fleet of Indian Navy:


              currently Indian navy operating two aircraft carrier  ins Virat and ins Vikramaditya


                 Ins virat is a British aircraft carrier currently being used by the Indian navy.Its construction was completed in 1959 for the British Royal Navy, in 1987 it was transferred to the Indian navy.According to the news, it is due to be decommissioned by the end of can carry 28 sea harrier short take-off vertical landing aircraft for air defence and anti-ship mission.she carries ka 31 for early warning and sea king for ASW (anti-submarine warfare) operations.

displacement: 28700 Tons at full load
length :227m
speed:28 knots
Range: 10500 km at 14 knots
weapons:16 cell Barak 1 launcher
                2*40mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns
                2*Ak 230 CIWS

INS Vikramaditya:

                Ins Vikramaditya was a kiev class cruiser of Russian  Navy that was purchased by IN in 2004  and delivered to  Indian navy in 2013 at total cost of 2.35 billion $ after a major refit and delays.she was inducted by prime minister  Narendra Modi in 2014.She carries a newly developed version of Mig 29K. she can carry 30 of Mig 29K and 6 Kamov helicopters for AEW and ASW.
she is an SATOBAR ( short take-off but arrested recovery) aircraft carrier and capable of operating the MIG 29k , Naval Tejas and future Indian navy aircraft.
Displacement:45500 tons loaded 
Length: 283.5m
Beam: 60m
Speed: 32 knots
Range: 25000 km at 18 knots 
Propulsion: conventional 
armament: 4* AK 630 CIWS
                   Barak 1
                    Barak 8 MRSAM

DESTROYER: Indian navy currently operating three type of destroyers


Kolkata class is improved Delhi class destroyer having the same hull as the Delhi class but has a different superstructure.Kolkata class has superior stealthy design and best sensors and weapons available compared to any warship of Indian navy.
           Kolkata class is designed to escort the carrier battle group of Indian navy.Its main radar is elta mf star .MF star is multifunction active electronically scan array radar operating in  S-band spectrum.
it can track hundreds of targets and guide multiple Barak 8 missiles .it can track aircraft beyond 250 km and sea skimming cruise missiles at a distance greater than 25 kms. Barak 8 missile has a min range of 500ms to maximum 70 km. she carries 32 cells of vls of Barak 8 although barak 8 is capable, but the number of vls is not adequate. Kolkata class can be easily outnumbered in a saturated air attack. Barak 8 is designed to take on supersonic aShm like bBrahmosand highly manoeuvrable. Kolkata class has 16 cells Brahmosh missile for anti ship and  anti surface warfare. Brahmosh is the world most deadly anti ship missile with a speed of 2.8 mach and range more than 300 kms. For point defence,  she carries 4  AK 630 close in weapon system. she also has stealth mounted 76 mm super rapid gun from oto marela which can provide anti ship and limited anti air support. For anti sub warfare she has 2 twin cell torpedo launchers from L&T .Her hanger can accommodate two helicopters .Although kolkata class has impressive weapon but she is not armed and have a lot of space is available for future upgrades.
    displacement : 7200 tons
    Range: 15000 km at 18 knots  
three Kolkata class ships are on order out of three two are completed and one is undergoing construction , ins kochi is under sea trails and ins kolkata is already commissioned.             

    DELHI CLASS :-       

  1. INS Delhi is the lead ship of her class of guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai and commissioned on 15 November 1997.
  2. Construction startedDecember 12, 1992
  3. , L,launchedMarch 20, 1995
  4. length163 m
  5. Draft6.50 three
  6. of the Delhi class is inducted and are operational.

  7. RAJPUT CLASS: - The Rajput-class guided-missile destroyers built for the Indian Navy are modified versions of Soviet Kashin-class destroyers. They are also known as Kashin-II class. The ships were built in the former Soviet Union after considerable Indian design modifications to the Kashin design. These included the replacement of the helicopter pad in the original design with a flight elevator, as well as major changes to the electronics and combat systems. Five units were built for export to India in the 1980s. All units are currently attached to the Eastern Naval Command.

  8. Displacement:5000 tons full load length :147 mmdrought:
  9. 5m
beam : 16 m
armament :
8 anti ship missiles it may be brahmos or SSN styx system after upgrade every ship of this class has different weaponry .
rajput class has two sam launchers.her class consist two twin torpedo launchers ,two RBU 6000 anti sub rocket launchers .she has also a hanger which can operate Ka 28 helicopters.


Shivalik class frigates of Indian navy are the most heavily armed warship of Indian navy after Kolkata  class and are the backbone of the Indian Navy.she is  first indigenous warship designed with stealth features. Shivalik  class designing, successful production and induction into Indian navy demonstrate the capability of Indian shipyards.three  frigates of this class have been produced so far by Mazagon dock shipyards by 2012.  
Shivalik class are powered by diesel engines and gas turbines in CODOG (combined diesel or gas)   configuration  providing the long range and high speed.
Displacement:  6800 tons
Length:145 m
          Beam:  16.9 m
             Draught: 4.52 m 
Armament:    32 cell Barak 1 SAM for point defence 
                 24 sthil -1 medium range SAM
                                         8 vls launcher for klub or Brahmos missile
 1 OTO Breda 76 mm 
     2* AK 630 CIWS 
                                                 2*RBU 6000 anti-submarine rocket launcher 
Sensors:  HUMSA NG so
                                   ATAS towed array sonar 
                 el/m 2238
                                                                                BEL Sinatra                                                                                                                                  

Monday, 18 May 2015

Comptroller and Auditor General(CAG) Report On Tejas Program

his Performance Audit Report for the year ended March
2014,  has been prepared for submission to the President of India under Article 151 of the Constitution of India.
The Report contains the results of examination by Audit of the issues relating to Design, Development, Manufacture and Induction of Light Combat Aircraft (Air Force). The Performance Audit (PA) covers the progress made in execution of LCA programme since the last Review, i.e., Para 28 of the Report No. 8 of 1999 of the C&AG of India, Union Government, Defence ServicesIndian Air Force (IAF) was operating MIG-21 series of aircraft manufactured during 1966 to 1987. Majority of these aircraft were to complete their total technical life and were expected to be phased out in the 1990s, thereby resulting in significant fall in combat level of Air Force. Thus, IAF mooted the proposal (early 1980s) for a replacement aircraft for MIG-21 fleet.  It was against this backdrop that the indigenous design & development of Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) was sanctioned (1983) and Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore was formed (1984) to execute the programme.  
As specified in the ASR (1985), LCA was required to be inducted into IAF by 1994. However, the LCA programme was riddled with delays right from the sanction of 1983 and even after three decades since, LCA is yet to be inducted into IAF squadrons.
During the course of phased development, ADA’s decision to advance building of two prototypes from FSED Phase II to FSED Phase I rendered these prototypes deficient of critical on board systems, which had a cascading effect on the remaining three prototypes, and led to ADA using even the Limited Series Production aircraft meant for IAF use towards flight testing/evaluation, in contravention to the commitment given to the GoI at the time of obtaining sanction for building of these aircraft.
Further, IOC for LCA Mark-I was achieved (December 2013) with 53 concessions/permanent waivers, which limits the operational efficiency and survivability of the aircraft. Consequently, LCA Mark-I currently under development (both IOC/FOC aircraft) has shortfalls in meeting the engine thrust and other parameters such as weight of the aircraft, fuel capacity, pilot protection from front against 7.62 mm bullets etc. The self-protection jammer which was originally to be fitted on LCA Mark-I is now planned to be fitted on LCA Mark-II, thus the 40 LCA Mark-I would be provided only with RWR Tarang-1B and deficient of self-protection jammer, thus limiting its electronic warfare capabilities. Thus, IAF would be constrained to use 40 LCA Mk-I aircraft with limited operational capabilities, and LCA Mark-II being developed by ADA presently is expected to meet the ASR.
Delays in identification/replacement/ addition of weapons by IAF and their integration as per IAF requirement to make the LCA contemporary also added to the delays. In addition, there have been delays in completion of work packages by various work centres, which indicated ineffective monitoring of the project by MoD.
User involvement right from inception would be essential for effective and efficient completion of any project However, active user (Air HQ) participation in the LCA Programme started only after November 2006, even though the need for a Liaison Group between Air HQ and ADA to ensure closer interaction between the design team and the user for better appreciation of mutual perception, had been recommended by the LCA PDP Review Committee as early as in 1989.
Though ADA claimed achievement of 70 per cent indigestion, half of these sub-systems are developed with imported electronic components and accessories etc. The LCA programme suffered major setbacks in the indigenous development of Kaveri engine, Multi-Mode Radar, self-protection jammer, etc. The proposal for indigenous development of 109 LRUs was pending approval since February 2014.
The setting up of a production capacity of eight LCA per annum was delayed by HAL, which coupled with delay in production capacity augmentation, had impacted the formation of LCA Squadrons. Further, there has been delay in the manufacture and supply of series production aircraft due to delayed LCA development.
As a consequence of delay in development and induction of LCA, IAF had to up-grade MiG Bis, MiG-29, Mirage-2000 and Jaguar aircraft at a cost of `20,037 crore and revise phasing out of MiG-21 to ensure credible combact .
Considering that measures taken by IAF to upgrade other aircraft were of temporary nature and induction of LCA was crucial for maintaining the operational preparedness of IAF in order to overcome the drawdown of squadron strength permanently, the LCA programme needs to be expeditiously completed to cater to the needs of the Defence Forces so as to avoid import of the fighter aircraft of this class and to ensure self-reliance in the long run.

Friday, 24 April 2015

Indigenous Missiles (Air Defence) At A Glance

Indigenous air defence missiles  include Akash, AAD, PAD, PDV, Maitri and Barak 8.Surface to air missile is also called as SAM.We are  still behind many countries like US, UK, Russia,France and also from china in the development of sophisticated  SAMs, but the success of Akash missile program gave DRDO the confidence to build the sophisticated SAMs.
                there are some images of Indian sams
                       Akash Missile
                          Advance Air Defence (AAD)

          PDV Missile                                       Barak 8

               SR sam (MAITRI)

Akash Missile


                         Akash missile has four clipped triangular wings are attached to the mid body of the missile.these four wings control its yaw and pitch of the missile.It has four ducts for its engine in the mid-body as you can see in the above image.It has four clipped delta wing to control the roll of the missile.
Propulsion: Akash uses indigenous integrated solid state ramjet engine for its propulsion.Ramjet engine allows Akash missile to goes up to 2.5 Mach speed, it also provides acceleration whole path until the interception.The whole way thrust ensures higher manoeuvrable compared to rocket-propelled SAMs like S 300, Patriot etc.

 Guidance: Akash missile uses command guidance provided by its fire control radar.

     Its fire control radar is Rajendra. Rajendra is  a phased array radar which has a range of 60 km. It can track 64 targets and engage 4 simultaneously in ripple mode.This radar provided tracking to interception information through a data link to the missile.It has also a good ECCM feature which allow to work in highest jamming environment .this is being produced by the BEL.
Accuracy: Akash missile has very high single shot kill probability around 88%.If two missile are fired in ripple mode then its kill probability will be around 98.5%.
                   Akash is a very decent sam and it costs half of the comparable systems around the globe, it is being produced by BDL for IAF and for IA will start soon.its mk2 version is also being developed by DRDO and thus making this missile a complete success.
  Video link for Akash missile test

BMD phase 1:

                Our  ballistic missile defence system (BMD) is a two-tier system, which include an
exo-atmospheric interceptor missile and an endo-atmospheric.this program started in 1999 due to the
Pakistani nukes carrying ballistic missiles and also due to our no first use of its nuke policy.

 Advanced Air Defence (AAD): 

                       AAD is the endo-atmospheric missile of the BMD system.It is a very manoeuvrable compare to exo-atmospheric can intercept ballistic missile of 2000 km range at an altitude of 30km. Its  fire control radar is provided by the Thales of France. the radar is aesa and DRDO program to fit into its BMD program.
                           AAD missile use drdo developed inertial navigation system and midcourse guidance by the fire control radar.It use an active radar seeker for terminal navigation or end use single stage solid state rocket propulsion.It is very reliable because it had intercepted the target without any failure in the past tests.

Prithvi Air Defence(PAD):

PAD is a two stage exo-atmospheric anti-ballistic missile.It uses solid state propellant  in fist stage and in second it uses liquid propellant. It is capable of intercepting the ballistic missile of the class of 2000 km range at an altitude of 80 km. 
                Its fire control radar is long-range tracking radar( LRTR) used in the green pine system of Israel, its software is developed by drdo and named as Swordfish .the radar act as tracking and fire control can track up to 600 km.PAD uses same navigation and seeker that is used in 
           Let's talk about the whole of the BMD system, the interception of the ballistic missile require network-centric control centre connected to spy satellite and an autonomous interception.All the required technology is developed by DRDO.

Barak 8: 

 Barak 8 is a joint development venture between DRDO and IAI.It is a light weight medium range surface to air missile of range 70 km.It can destroy enemy missile, low altitude flying cruise missiles,
aircraft at long ranges.It uses dual pulse solid state motor developed by drdo.Its fire control radar is
MFstar radar developed by Elta of Israel.It has the two-way data link for mid-course update. At terminal
stage it uses another motor and also activates its own seeker.It is highly manoeuvrable in the terminal phase.
            Navy calls the Barak 8 as lr-sam .navy is planning to install it to Kolkata class destroyer,P15b (Visakhapatnam class),P17a and also on Ins Vikrant .this missile will act as backbone of Indian navy air defence warships.Indian air force also wants to order some barak 8 sam launchers to protect its assets.

Thursday, 16 April 2015


Tejas is compound tailless delta wing multirole Indian fighter aircraft.
It is designed and developed by DRDO aeronautics cluster ADA(aeronautical development agency) and being produced by Hindustan aeronautics limited as per its initial operational clearance configuration.
TEJAS  AS THE PRIDE OF INDIA: I love this plane not because it is beautiful, but because it is Indian (designed and developed in India), the first plane which is truly designed by Indian.It  is very light and small.
It has been tested in harsh Indian condition and also proved its capability in Iron Fist, Aero India 2013
and by taking off from SBTF facility, Goa. IAF never supported fully this Desi bird.As it is first Indian combat aircraft it has some flaws, but these can be eliminated in the mid-life upgrade.
It has completed its IOC tests and near to get FOC, till now Indian Air force has ordered only 40 plane which is very less than what it should be as IAF need about 400 light weight single engine fighter.

DESIGN: Tejas is designed along the single engine, unstable tailless compound delta wing configuration.
here is the orthographic of Tejas......
As it is unstable in needs to makes stable which is done by flight control computer.As we read "it is unstable " one question arises why it is so?,what is the advantage?how does it fly smoothly as we know?
in now days combat aircraft must be highly maneuverable aircraft for air to air combat.In your views which are more maneuverable a stable car or an unstable bike , which can turn faster? the answer is bike.that is why Tejas is made astable.
     Tejas flight control system is quadruplex digital fly by wire(fbw) system.Fly by wire means its actuators which control the control surface movement is controlled by electronic signals, not by mechanical means. the fbw software is made by national CLAW team and was validated, which was a big achievement.Till now Tejas had completed as more as 2800 flights without any accident , this proves how reliable its fbw system is.
     Compound delta wing produces vortex as same as close coupled canard in the Gripen at a high angle of attack (AOA).Tejas fbw system allows it  to go up to 28-degree angle of attack as per can
go to 35-degree AOA without its control surfaces going to stall.
 ENGINE: Tejas use American GE F404 IN 20 is a low bypass turbofan engine.
The specification of the engine is as follow
Dry thrust: 53.9 kN
Thrust with afterburner(wet thrust): 89.8 kN
     With this engine Tejas has 1.07 thrust to weight ratio which is best in its class.Due to its high thrust to weight ratio and low wing loading it has high instantaneous turn rate and sustained turn rate.Its high ITR provide an opportunity  to get a first lock and hence the first attack.

ARMAMENT: Tejas has 7 hard points  for weapons and one for targeting pod like lightning targeting pod.

Tejas can carry 3.5 ton of weapons on its 8 hard points.the configuration of weapon is shown in above image.It can carry 1250 litre on its two inner sides of hard point on the wing and can carry 750 litres of fuel on centerline  hard point.Tejas external hard points is use to carry two high off bore sight R 73 missile, which has a range of 35 km and it uses IR sensor.R 73 is main close combat missile of Tejas.
Derby and Python will be integrated on Tejas as beyond visual range missile (WVR).The Astra missile will also be integrated on Tejas. As Tejas is a multi-role fighter it can carry the iron bomb, laser guide bomb(LGB) and anti-ship missile also.Tejas main BVR missile will be I-Derby ER  which has range excess of 100 km.
AVIONICS: Tejas has all glass cockpit and it has also night vision compatible.It has multi-function display for showing information, head up display(hud) for displaying important information it allows
pilot to fly without any need for seeing around in cockpit.tejas has an electronic warfare suit for better survivability.It includes radar warning receiver, automatic flare and chaff launcher.In future, it may be outfitted with the radar jammer also.
               Tejas has a multi-mode radar (MMR) which is developed from elta m2032 radar.the radar antenna is indigenous but is processing  end is developed by  Israel.its range is said to be about 100km for fighter size aircraft(RCS of 5m2).The radar has sub air to air mode , air to the ground mode or sar mapping mode and air to sea can track sea targets from 300km away.
RANGE:  Tejas is lightweight fighter its  so combat radius is little less than medium weight fighter aircraft.
                 combat radius :700 km (approx)
                 ferry range: 3000km

There is a separate program along with the IAF Tejas to develop a naval carrier-borne fighter on the basis of the Tejas platform. It has a stronger landing gear for carrier has leading edge vortex controller (LEVCON),it helps naval Tejas for better low-speed handling and , approach speed and sink rate for arrested landing.there is plan for 5 naval prototypes out of which 3 will be mk1 and two mk2.NP1 had taken off from shore-based test facility , Goa last year end.with that event India becomes one of the elite countries to develop its indigenous carrier-borne fighter.
naval prototype 2(single seater)
                                                                    NP1 taking off from SBTF, Goa
video of the first flight of Tejas np1 from SBTF  

 TEJAS MK 1 P (mk 1.5):-

HAL has purposed air force with an improved mk1 of Tejas with improved avionics. According to HAL this version may be available for production from 2017 , this version will have downscaled 
      elta m 2052 radar and electronic warfare suit which is being developed for the Tejas mark 2. these upgrade will make Tejas best BVR fighter plane in  the lightweight category.