Friday, 22 May 2015


                           India has a very large coastline compared to its rival nations.India is surrounded by  Indian ocean and pacific ocean.Most of the world trade is through sea out of  more than 70% is through Indian ocean, thus making Indian ocean very important compared to other sea routes.To secure Indian interest in Indian ocean region, (IOR) Indian navy must be upgraded to a true blue water navy.

            Existing fleet of Indian Navy:


              currently Indian navy operating two aircraft carrier  ins Virat and ins Vikramaditya


                 Ins virat is a British aircraft carrier currently being used by the Indian navy.Its construction was completed in 1959 for the British Royal Navy, in 1987 it was transferred to the Indian navy.According to the news, it is due to be decommissioned by the end of can carry 28 sea harrier short take-off vertical landing aircraft for air defence and anti-ship mission.she carries ka 31 for early warning and sea king for ASW (anti-submarine warfare) operations.

displacement: 28700 Tons at full load
length :227m
speed:28 knots
Range: 10500 km at 14 knots
weapons:16 cell Barak 1 launcher
                2*40mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns
                2*Ak 230 CIWS

INS Vikramaditya:

                Ins Vikramaditya was a kiev class cruiser of Russian  Navy that was purchased by IN in 2004  and delivered to  Indian navy in 2013 at total cost of 2.35 billion $ after a major refit and delays.she was inducted by prime minister  Narendra Modi in 2014.She carries a newly developed version of Mig 29K. she can carry 30 of Mig 29K and 6 Kamov helicopters for AEW and ASW.
she is an SATOBAR ( short take-off but arrested recovery) aircraft carrier and capable of operating the MIG 29k , Naval Tejas and future Indian navy aircraft.
Displacement:45500 tons loaded 
Length: 283.5m
Beam: 60m
Speed: 32 knots
Range: 25000 km at 18 knots 
Propulsion: conventional 
armament: 4* AK 630 CIWS
                   Barak 1
                    Barak 8 MRSAM

DESTROYER: Indian navy currently operating three type of destroyers


Kolkata class is improved Delhi class destroyer having the same hull as the Delhi class but has a different superstructure.Kolkata class has superior stealthy design and best sensors and weapons available compared to any warship of Indian navy.
           Kolkata class is designed to escort the carrier battle group of Indian navy.Its main radar is elta mf star .MF star is multifunction active electronically scan array radar operating in  S-band spectrum.
it can track hundreds of targets and guide multiple Barak 8 missiles .it can track aircraft beyond 250 km and sea skimming cruise missiles at a distance greater than 25 kms. Barak 8 missile has a min range of 500ms to maximum 70 km. she carries 32 cells of vls of Barak 8 although barak 8 is capable, but the number of vls is not adequate. Kolkata class can be easily outnumbered in a saturated air attack. Barak 8 is designed to take on supersonic aShm like bBrahmosand highly manoeuvrable. Kolkata class has 16 cells Brahmosh missile for anti ship and  anti surface warfare. Brahmosh is the world most deadly anti ship missile with a speed of 2.8 mach and range more than 300 kms. For point defence,  she carries 4  AK 630 close in weapon system. she also has stealth mounted 76 mm super rapid gun from oto marela which can provide anti ship and limited anti air support. For anti sub warfare she has 2 twin cell torpedo launchers from L&T .Her hanger can accommodate two helicopters .Although kolkata class has impressive weapon but she is not armed and have a lot of space is available for future upgrades.
    displacement : 7200 tons
    Range: 15000 km at 18 knots  
three Kolkata class ships are on order out of three two are completed and one is undergoing construction , ins kochi is under sea trails and ins kolkata is already commissioned.             

    DELHI CLASS :-       

  1. INS Delhi is the lead ship of her class of guided-missile destroyers of the Indian Navy. She was built at the Mazagon Dock Limited in Mumbai and commissioned on 15 November 1997.
  2. Construction startedDecember 12, 1992
  3. , L,launchedMarch 20, 1995
  4. length163 m
  5. Draft6.50 three
  6. of the Delhi class is inducted and are operational.

  7. RAJPUT CLASS: - The Rajput-class guided-missile destroyers built for the Indian Navy are modified versions of Soviet Kashin-class destroyers. They are also known as Kashin-II class. The ships were built in the former Soviet Union after considerable Indian design modifications to the Kashin design. These included the replacement of the helicopter pad in the original design with a flight elevator, as well as major changes to the electronics and combat systems. Five units were built for export to India in the 1980s. All units are currently attached to the Eastern Naval Command.

  8. Displacement:5000 tons full load length :147 mmdrought:
  9. 5m
beam : 16 m
armament :
8 anti ship missiles it may be brahmos or SSN styx system after upgrade every ship of this class has different weaponry .
rajput class has two sam launchers.her class consist two twin torpedo launchers ,two RBU 6000 anti sub rocket launchers .she has also a hanger which can operate Ka 28 helicopters.


Shivalik class frigates of Indian navy are the most heavily armed warship of Indian navy after Kolkata  class and are the backbone of the Indian Navy.she is  first indigenous warship designed with stealth features. Shivalik  class designing, successful production and induction into Indian navy demonstrate the capability of Indian shipyards.three  frigates of this class have been produced so far by Mazagon dock shipyards by 2012.  
Shivalik class are powered by diesel engines and gas turbines in CODOG (combined diesel or gas)   configuration  providing the long range and high speed.
Displacement:  6800 tons
Length:145 m
          Beam:  16.9 m
             Draught: 4.52 m 
Armament:    32 cell Barak 1 SAM for point defence 
                 24 sthil -1 medium range SAM
                                         8 vls launcher for klub or Brahmos missile
 1 OTO Breda 76 mm 
     2* AK 630 CIWS 
                                                 2*RBU 6000 anti-submarine rocket launcher 
Sensors:  HUMSA NG so
                                   ATAS towed array sonar 
                 el/m 2238
                                                                                BEL Sinatra                                                                                                                                  

Monday, 18 May 2015

Comptroller and Auditor General(CAG) Report On Tejas Program

his Performance Audit Report for the year ended March
2014,  has been prepared for submission to the President of India under Article 151 of the Constitution of India.
The Report contains the results of examination by Audit of the issues relating to Design, Development, Manufacture and Induction of Light Combat Aircraft (Air Force). The Performance Audit (PA) covers the progress made in execution of LCA programme since the last Review, i.e., Para 28 of the Report No. 8 of 1999 of the C&AG of India, Union Government, Defence ServicesIndian Air Force (IAF) was operating MIG-21 series of aircraft manufactured during 1966 to 1987. Majority of these aircraft were to complete their total technical life and were expected to be phased out in the 1990s, thereby resulting in significant fall in combat level of Air Force. Thus, IAF mooted the proposal (early 1980s) for a replacement aircraft for MIG-21 fleet.  It was against this backdrop that the indigenous design & development of Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) was sanctioned (1983) and Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore was formed (1984) to execute the programme.  
As specified in the ASR (1985), LCA was required to be inducted into IAF by 1994. However, the LCA programme was riddled with delays right from the sanction of 1983 and even after three decades since, LCA is yet to be inducted into IAF squadrons.
During the course of phased development, ADA’s decision to advance building of two prototypes from FSED Phase II to FSED Phase I rendered these prototypes deficient of critical on board systems, which had a cascading effect on the remaining three prototypes, and led to ADA using even the Limited Series Production aircraft meant for IAF use towards flight testing/evaluation, in contravention to the commitment given to the GoI at the time of obtaining sanction for building of these aircraft.
Further, IOC for LCA Mark-I was achieved (December 2013) with 53 concessions/permanent waivers, which limits the operational efficiency and survivability of the aircraft. Consequently, LCA Mark-I currently under development (both IOC/FOC aircraft) has shortfalls in meeting the engine thrust and other parameters such as weight of the aircraft, fuel capacity, pilot protection from front against 7.62 mm bullets etc. The self-protection jammer which was originally to be fitted on LCA Mark-I is now planned to be fitted on LCA Mark-II, thus the 40 LCA Mark-I would be provided only with RWR Tarang-1B and deficient of self-protection jammer, thus limiting its electronic warfare capabilities. Thus, IAF would be constrained to use 40 LCA Mk-I aircraft with limited operational capabilities, and LCA Mark-II being developed by ADA presently is expected to meet the ASR.
Delays in identification/replacement/ addition of weapons by IAF and their integration as per IAF requirement to make the LCA contemporary also added to the delays. In addition, there have been delays in completion of work packages by various work centres, which indicated ineffective monitoring of the project by MoD.
User involvement right from inception would be essential for effective and efficient completion of any project However, active user (Air HQ) participation in the LCA Programme started only after November 2006, even though the need for a Liaison Group between Air HQ and ADA to ensure closer interaction between the design team and the user for better appreciation of mutual perception, had been recommended by the LCA PDP Review Committee as early as in 1989.
Though ADA claimed achievement of 70 per cent indigestion, half of these sub-systems are developed with imported electronic components and accessories etc. The LCA programme suffered major setbacks in the indigenous development of Kaveri engine, Multi-Mode Radar, self-protection jammer, etc. The proposal for indigenous development of 109 LRUs was pending approval since February 2014.
The setting up of a production capacity of eight LCA per annum was delayed by HAL, which coupled with delay in production capacity augmentation, had impacted the formation of LCA Squadrons. Further, there has been delay in the manufacture and supply of series production aircraft due to delayed LCA development.
As a consequence of delay in development and induction of LCA, IAF had to up-grade MiG Bis, MiG-29, Mirage-2000 and Jaguar aircraft at a cost of `20,037 crore and revise phasing out of MiG-21 to ensure credible combact .
Considering that measures taken by IAF to upgrade other aircraft were of temporary nature and induction of LCA was crucial for maintaining the operational preparedness of IAF in order to overcome the drawdown of squadron strength permanently, the LCA programme needs to be expeditiously completed to cater to the needs of the Defence Forces so as to avoid import of the fighter aircraft of this class and to ensure self-reliance in the long run.